Tuesday, June 16, 2020

C Interview Questions and Answers

Question 1. Explain The Purpose Of Main( ) Function?

Answer :

The function main( ) invokes other functions within it.It is the first function to be called when the program starts execution.

It is the starting function.

It returns an int value to the environment that called the program.

Recursive call is allowed for main( ) also.

It is a user-defined function.

Program execution ends when the closing brace of the function main( ) is reached.

It has two arguments argument count and.

argument vector (represents strings passed). 

Any user-defined name can also be used as parameters for main( ) instead of argc and argv.

Question 2. Write The Equivalent Expression For X%8?

Answer :


Question 3. Why N++ Executes Faster Than N+1?

Answer :

The expression n++ requires a single machine instruction such as INR to carry out the increment operation whereas n+1 requires more instructions to carry out this operation.

Question 4. Can The Sizeof Operator Be Used To Tell The Size Of An Array Passed To A Function?

Answer :

No. There’s no way to tell, at runtime, how many elements are in an array parameter just by looking at the array parameter itself. Remember, passing an array to a function is exactly the same as passing a pointer to the first element.

Question 5. Is Using Exit () The Same As Using Return?

Answer :

No. The exit () function is used to exit your program and return control to the operating system. The return statement is used to return from a function and return control to the calling function. If you issue a return from the main () function, you are essentially returning control to the calling function, which is the operating system. In this case, the return statement and exit () function are similar.

Question 6. What Is A Function And Built-in Function?

Answer :

A large program is subdivided into a number of smaller programs or subprograms. Each subprogram specifies one or more actions to be performed for a large program. Such subprograms are functions. The function supports only static and extern storage classes. By default, function assumes extern storage class. Functions have global scope. Only register or auto storage class is allowed in the function parameters. Built-in functions that predefined and supplied along with the compiler are known as built-in functions. They are also known as library functions.

Question 7. Write About Modular Programming?

Answer :

If a program is large, it is subdivided into a number of smaller programs that are called modules or subprograms. If a complex problem is solved using more modules, this approach is known as modular programming.

Question 8. When Does The Compiler Not Implicitly Generate The Address Of The First Element Of An Array?

Answer :

Whenever an array name appears in an expression such as,

array as an operand of the sizeof operator.

 array as an operand of & operator.

array as a string literal initializer for a character array.

Then the compiler does not implicitly generate the address of the address of the first element of an array.

Question 9. Mention The Characteristics Of Arrays In C?

Answer :

An array holds elements that have the same data type.

Array elements are stored in subsequent memory locations.

Two-dimensional array elements are stored row by row in subsequent memory locations.

Array name represents the address of the starting element.

Array size should be mentioned in the declaration. Array size must be a constant expression and not a variable.

Question 10. Differentiate Between A Linker And Linkage?

Answer :

A linker converts an object code into an executable code by linking together the necessary build in functions. The form and place of declaration where the variable is declared in a program determine the linkage of variable.

Question 11. What Are The Advantages Of Auto Variables?

Answer :

The same auto variable name can be used in different blocks.

There is no side effect by changing the values in the blocks.

The memory is economically used.

Auto variables have inherent protection because of local scope.

Question 12. What Is Storage Class And What Are Storage Variable?

Answer :

A storage class is an attribute that changes the behavior of a variable. It controls the lifetime, scope and linkage. There are five types of storage classes.






Question 13. Which Expression Always Return True? Which Always Return False?

Answer :

expression if (a=0) always return false.

expression if (a=1) always return true.

Question 14. Is It Possible To Execute Code Even After The Program Exits The Main () Function?

Answer :

The standard C library provides a function named at exit () that can be used to perform “cleanup” operations when your program terminates. You can set up a set of functions you want to perform automatically when your program exits by passing function pointers to the at exit() function.

Question 15. Why Should I Prototype A Function?

Answer :

A function prototype tells the compiler what kind of arguments a function is looking to receive and what kind of return value a function is going to give back. This approach helps the compiler ensure that calls to a function are made correctly and that no erroneous type conversions are taking place.

Question 16. How Do You Print An Address?

Answer :

The safest way is to use printf () (or fprintf() or sprintf()) with the %P specification. That prints a void pointer (void*). Different compilers might print a pointer with different formats. Your compiler will pick a format that’s right for your environment.

If you have some other kind of pointer (not a void*) and you want to be very safe, cast the pointer to a void*:

printf (“%Pn”, (void*) buffer);

Question 17. Can Math Operations Be Performed On A Void Pointer?

Answer :

No. Pointer addition and subtraction are based on advancing the pointer by a number of elements. By definition, if you have a void pointer, you don’t know what it’s pointing to, so you don’t know the size of what it’s pointing to. If you want pointer arithmetic to work on raw addresses, use character pointers.

Question 18. How Can You Determine The Size Of An Allocated Portion Of Memory?

Answer :

You can’t, really free() can , but there’s no way for your program to know the trick free() uses. Even if you disassemble the library and discover the trick, there’s no guarantee the trick won’t change with the next release of the compiler.

Question 19. What Is A "null Pointer Assignment" Error? What Are Bus Errors, Memory Faults, And Core Dumps?

Answer :

These are all serious errors, symptoms of a wild pointer or subscript. Null pointer assignment is a message you might get when an MS-DOS program finishes executing. Some such programs can arrange for a small amount of memory to be available “where the NULL pointer points to” (so to speak). If the program tries to write to that area, it will overwrite the data put there by the compiler. When the program is done, code generated by the compiler examines that area. If that data has been changed, the compiler-generated code complains with null pointer assignment.

This message carries only enough information to get you worried. There’s no way to tell, just from a null pointer assignment message, what part of your program is responsible for the error. Some debuggers, and some compilers, can give you more help in finding the problem. Bus error: core dumped and Memory fault: core dumped are messages you might see from a program running under UNIX. They’re more programmers friendly. Both mean that a pointer or an array subscript was wildly out of bounds. You can get these messages on a read or on a write. They aren’t restricted to null pointer problems.

The core dumped part of the message is telling you about a file, called core that has just been written in your current directory. This is a dump of everything on the stack and in the heap at the time the program was running. With the help of a debugger, you can use the core dump to find where the bad pointer was used. That might not tell you why the pointer was bad, but it’s a step in the right direction. If you don’t have write permission in the current directory, you won’t get a core file, or the core dumped message.

Question 20. What Is The Heap?

Answer :

The heap is where malloc(), calloc(), and realloc() get memory.

Getting memory from the heap is much slower than getting it from the stack. On the other hand, the heap is much more flexible than the stack. Memory can be allocated at any time and deallocated in any order. Such memory isn’t deallocated automatically; you have to call free ().

Recursive data structures are almost always implemented with memory from the heap. Strings often come from there too, especially strings that could be very long at runtime. If you can keep data in a local variable (and allocate it from the stack), your code will run faster than if you put the data on the heap. Sometimes you can use a better algorithm if you use the heap—faster, or more robust, or more flexible. It’s a tradeoff.

If memory is allocated from the heap, it’s available until the program ends. That’s great if you remember to deallocate it when you’re done. If you forget, it’s a problem. A “memory leak” is some allocated memory that’s no longer needed but isn’t deallocated. If you have a memory leak inside a loop, you can use up all the memory on the heap and not be able to get any more. (When that happens, the allocation functions return a null pointer.) In some environments, if a program doesn’t deallocate everything it allocated, memory stays unavailable even after the program ends.

Question 21. Difference Between Null And Nul?

Answer :

NULL is a macro defined in for the null pointer. NUL is the name of the first character in the ASCII character set. It corresponds to a zero value. There’s no standard macro NUL in C, but some people like to define it.

The digit 0 corresponds to a value of 80, decimal. Don’t confuse the digit 0 with the value of ‘’ (NUL)!

NULL can be defined as ((void*)0), NUL as ‘  ’.

Question 22. What Is The Stack?

Answer :

The stack is where all the functions’ local (auto) variables are created. The stack also contains some information used to call and return from functions.

A “stack trace” is a list of which functions have been called, based on this information. When you start using a debugger, one of the first things you should learn is how to get a stack trace. The stack is very inflexible about allocating memory; everything must be deallocated in exactly the reverse order it was allocated in. For implementing function calls, that is all that’s needed. Allocating memory off the stack is extremely efficient. One of the reasons C compilers generate such good code is their heavy use of a simple stack.

There used to be a C function that any programmer could use for allocating memory off the stack. The memory was automatically deallocated when the calling function returned. This was a dangerous function to call; it’s not available anymore.

Question 23. When Should A Far Pointer Be Used?

Answer :

Sometimes you can get away with using a small memory model in most of a given program. There might be just a few things that don’t fit in your small data and code segments. When that happens, you can use explicit far pointers and function declarations to get at the rest of memory. A far function can be outside the 64KB segment most functions are shoehorned into for a small-code model. (Often, libraries are declared explicitly far, so they’ll work no matter what code model the program uses.)

A far pointer can refer to information outside the 64KB data segment. Typically, such pointers are used with farmalloc () and such, to manage a heap separate from where all the rest of the data lives. If you use a small-data, large-code model, you should explicitly make your function pointers far.

Question 24. Differentiate Between Far And Near?

Answer :

Some compilers for PC compatibles use two types of pointers. Near pointers are 16 bits long and can address a 64KB range. far pointers are 32 bits long and can address a 1MB range.

Near pointers operate within a 64KB segment. There’s one segment for function addresses and one segment for data. far pointers have a 16-bit base (the segment address) and a 16-bit offset. The base is multiplied by 16, so a far pointer is effectively 20 bits long. Before you compile your code, you must tell the compiler which memory model to use. If you use a small code memory model, near pointers are used by default for function addresses.

That means that all the functions need to fit in one 64KB segment. With a large-code model, the default is to use far function addresses. You’ll get near pointers with a small data model, and far pointers with a large data model. These are just the defaults; you can declare variables and functions as explicitly near or far.

Far pointers are a little slower. Whenever one is used, the code or data segment register needs to be swapped out. Far pointers also have odd semantics for arithmetic and comparison. For example, the two far pointers in the preceding example point to the same address, but they would compare as different! If your program fits in a small-data, small-code memory model, your life will be easier.

Question 25. Is It Better To Use Malloc () Or Calloc ()?

Answer :

Both the malloc() and the calloc() functions are used to allocate dynamic memory. Each operates slightly different from the other. malloc() takes a size and returns a pointer to a chunk of memory at least that big:

void *malloc( size_t size );

calloc() takes a number of elements, and the size of each, and returns a pointer to a chunk of memory at least big enough to hold them all:

void *calloc( size_t numElements,size_t sizeOfElement );

There’s one major difference and one minor difference between the two functions. The major difference is that malloc () doesn’t initialize the allocated memory. The first time malloc () gives you a particular chunk of memory, the memory might be full of zeros. If memory has been allocated, freed, and reallocated, it probably has whatever junk was left in it. That means, unfortunately, that a program might run in simple cases (when memory is never reallocated) but break when used harder (and when memory is reused). calloc() fills the allocated memory with all zero bits. That means that anything there you’re going to use as a char or an int of any length, signed or unsigned, is guaranteed to be zero. Anything you’re going to use as a pointer is set to all zero bits. That’s usually a null pointer, but it’s not guaranteed. Anything you’re going to use as a float or double is set to all zero bits; that’s a floating-point zero on some types of machines, but not on all.

The minor difference between the two is that calloc () returns an array of objects; malloc () returns one object. Some people use calloc () to make clear that they want an array.

Question 26. Why Is That We Have To Assign Null To The Elements (pointer) After Freeing Them?

Answer :

This is paranoia based on long experience. After a pointer has been freed, you can no longer use the pointed-to data. The pointer is said to “dangle”; it doesn’t point at anything useful. If you “NULL out” or “zero out” a pointer immediately after freeing it, your program can no longer get in trouble by using that pointer. True, you might go indirect on the null pointer instead, but that’s something your debugger might be able to help you with immediately. Also, there still might be copies of the pointer that refer to the memory that has been deallocated; that’s the nature of C. Zeroing out pointers after freeing them won’t solve all problems.

Question 27. When Would You Use A Pointer To A Function?

Answer :

Pointers to functions are interesting when you pass them to other functions. A function that takes function pointers says, in effect, “Part of what I do can be customized. Give me a pointer to a function, and I’ll call it when that part of the job needs to be done. That function can do its part for me.” This is known as a “callback.” It’s used a lot in graphical user interface libraries, in which the style of a display is built into the library but the contents of the display are part of the application.

As a simpler example, say you have an array of character pointers (char*s), and you want to sort it by the value of the strings the character pointers point to. The standard qsort() function uses function pointers to perform that task. qsort() takes four arguments,

a pointer to the beginning of the array,

the number of elements in the array,

the size of each array element, and,

 a comparison function, and returns an int.

Question 28. What Does It Mean When A Pointer Is Used In An If Statement?

Answer :

Any time a pointer is used as a condition, it means “Is this a non-null pointer?” A pointer can be used in an if, while, for, or do/while statement, or in a conditional expression.

Question 29. Is Null Always Defined As 0?

Answer :

NULL is defined as either 0 or (void*)0. These values are almost identical; either a literal zero or a void pointer is converted automatically to any kind of pointer, as necessary, whenever a pointer is needed (although the compiler can’t always tell when a pointer is needed).

Question 30. What Is A Null Pointer?

Answer :

There are times when it’s necessary to have a pointer that doesn’t point to anything. The macro NULL, defined in , has a value that’s guaranteed to be different from any valid pointer. NULL is a literal zero, possibly cast to void* or char*. Some people, notably C++ programmers, prefer to use 0 rather than NULL. The null pointer is used in three ways:

To stop indirection in a recursive data structure

As an error value

As a sentinel value

Question 31. Mention The Levels Of Pointers Can You Have?

Answer :

The answer depends on what you mean by “levels of pointers.” If you mean “How many levels of indirection can you have in a single declaration?” the answer is “At least 12.”

int i = 0;

int *ip01 = & i;

int **ip02 = & ip01;

int ***ip03 = & ip02;

int ****ip04 = & ip03;

int *****ip05 = & ip04;

int ******ip06 = & ip05;

int *******ip07 = & ip06;

int ********ip08 = & ip07;

int *********ip09 = & ip08;

int **********ip10 = & ip09;

int ***********ip11 = & ip10;

int ************ip12 = & ip11;

************ip12 = 1; /* i = 1 */

The ANSI C standard says all compilers must handle at least 12 levels. Your compiler might support more.

Question 32. What Is Indirection?

Answer :If you declare a variable, its name is a direct reference to its value. If you have a pointer to a variable or any other object in memory, you have an indirect reference to its value.

Question 33. How Do You Print Only Part Of A String?

Answer :

/* Use printf () to print the first 11 characters of source_str. */

printf (“First 11 characters: ‘%11.11s’n”, source_str);

Question 34. How To Convert A String To A Number?

Answer :

The standard C library provides several functions for converting strings to numbers of all formats (integers, longs, floats, and so on) and vice versa.

The following functions can be used to convert strings to numbers:

Function Name Purpose

atof():  Converts a string to a double-precision floating-point value.

atoi():  Converts a string to an integer.

atol():  Converts a string to a long integer.

Question 35. How To Convert A Number To A String?

Answer :

The standard C library provides several functions for converting numbers of all formats (integers, longs, floats, and so on) to strings and vice versa The following functions can be used to convert integers to strings:
Function Name Purpose

iota():    Converts an integer value to a string.

ltoa ():   Converts a long integer value to a string.

ultoa (): Converts an unsigned long integer value to a string.

The following functions can be used to convert floating-point values to strings:
Function Name Purpose

ecvt() :   Converts a double-precision floating-point value to a string without an embedded decimal point.

fcvt():      Same as ecvt(), but forces the precision to a specified number of digits.

gcvt():     Converts a double-precision floating-point value to a string with an embedded decimal point.

strtod():   Converts a string to a double-precision floating-point value and reports any “leftover” numbers that could not be converted.

strtol():    Converts a string to a long integer and reports any “leftover” numbers that could not be converted.

strtoul():  Converts a string to an unsigned long integer and reports any “leftover” numbers that could not be converted.

Question 36. Differentiate Between A String Copy (strcpy) And A Memory Copy (memcpy)? When Should Each Be Used?

Answer :

The strcpy() function is designed to work exclusively with strings. It copies each byte of the source string to the destination string and stops when the terminating null character () has been moved. On the other hand, the memcpy () function is designed to work with any type of data. Because not all data ends with a null character, you must provide the memcpy () function with the number of bytes you want to copy from the source to the destination.

Question 37. How Can You Check To See Whether A Symbol Is Defined?

Answer :

You can use the #ifdef and #ifndef preprocessor directives to check whether a symbol has been defined (#ifdef) or whether it has not been defined (#ifndef).

Question 38. How Do You Override A Defined Macro?

Answer :

You can use the #undef preprocessor directive to undefine (override) a previously defined macro.

Question 39. What Is #line Used For?

Answer :

The #line preprocessor directive is used to reset the values of the _ _LINE_ _ and _ _FILE_ _ symbols, respectively. This directive is commonly used in fourth-generation languages that generate C language source files.

Question 40. What Is A Pragma?

Answer :

The #pragma preprocessor directive allows each compiler to implement compiler-specific features that can be turned on and off with the #pragma statement. For instance, your compiler might support a feature called loop optimization. This feature can be invoked as a command-line option or as a #pragma directive. To implement this option using the #pragma directive, you would put the following line into your code:

#pragma loop_opt(on).

Question 41. What Are The Standard Predefined Macros?

Answer :

The ANSI C standard defines six predefined macros for use in the C language:
Macro Name Purpose

_ _LINE_ _ Inserts the current source code line number in your code.

_ _FILE_ _ Inserts the current source code filename in your code.

_ _DATE_ _ Inserts the current date of compilation in your code.

_ _TIME_ _ Inserts the current time of compilation in your code.

_ _cplusplus Is defined if you are compiling a C++ program.

Question 42. How Many Levels Deep Can Include Files Be Nested?

Answer :

Even though there is no limit to the number of levels of nested include files you can have, your compiler might run out of stack space while trying to include an inordinately high number of files. This number varies according to your hardware configuration and possibly your compiler.

Question 43. Can Include Files Be Nested?

Answer :

Yes. Include files can be nested any number of times. As long as you use precautionary measures , you can avoid including the same file twice. In the past, nesting header files was seen as bad programming practice, because it complicates the dependency tracking function of the MAKE program and thus slows down compilation. Many of today’s popular compilers make up for this difficulty by implementing a concept called precompiled headers, in which all headers and associated dependencies are stored in a precompiled state.

Many programmers like to create a custom header file that has #include statements for every header needed for each module. This is perfectly acceptable and can help avoid potential problems relating to #include files, such as accidentally omitting an #include file in a module.

Question 44. Define Which Header File To Include At Compile Time?

Answer :

Yes. This can be done by using the #if, #else, and #endif preprocessor directives. For example, certain compilers use different names for header files. One such case is between Borland C++, which uses the header file alloc.h, and Microsoft C++, which uses the header file malloc.h. Both of these headers serve the same purpose, and each contains roughly the same definitions. If, however, you are writing a program that is to support Borland C++ and Microsoft C++, you must define which header to include at compile time. The following example shows how this can be done:

#ifdef _ _BORLANDC_ _

#include  #else #include  #endif.

Question 45. Differentiate Between #include And #include "file"?

Answer :

When writing your C program, you can include files in two ways. The first way is to surround the file you want to include with the angled brackets < and >. This method of inclusion tells the preprocessor to look for the file in the predefined default location. This predefined default location is often an INCLUDE environment variable that denotes the path to your include files. For instance, given the INCLUDE variable


using the #include version of file inclusion, the compiler first checks the C:\COMPILER\INCLUDE directory for the specified file. If the file is not found there, the compiler then checks the S:\SOURCE\HEADERS directory. If the file is still not found, the preprocessor checks the current directory.

The second way to include files is to surround the file you want to include with double quotation marks. This method of inclusion tells the preprocessor to look for the file in the current directory first, then look for it in the predefined locations you have set up. Using the #include “file” version of file inclusion and applying it to the preceding example, the preprocessor first checks the current directory for the specified file. If the file is not found in the current directory, the C:COMPILERINCLUDE directory is searched. If the file is still not found, the preprocessor checks the S:SOURCEHEADERS directory.

The #include method of file inclusion is often used to include standard headers such as stdio.h or stdlib.h. This is because these headers are rarely (if ever) modified, and they should always be read from your compiler’s standard include file directory.

The #include “file” method of file inclusion is often used to include nonstandard header files that you have created for use in your program. This is because these headers are often modified in the current directory, and you will want the preprocessor to use your newly modified version of the header rather than the older, unmodified version.

Question 46. Which Is Better To Use A Macro Or A Function?

Answer :

The answer depends on the situation you are writing code for. Macros have the distinct advantage of being more efficient (and faster) than functions, because their corresponding code is inserted directly into your source code at the point where the macro is called. There is no overhead involved in using a macro like there is in placing a call to a function. However, macros are generally small and cannot handle large, complex coding constructs. A function is more suited for this type of situation. Additionally, macros are expanded inline, which means that the code is replicated for each occurrence of a macro. Your code therefore could be somewhat larger when you use macros than if you were to use functions. Thus, the choice between using a macro and using a function is one of deciding between the tradeoff of faster program speed versus smaller program size. Generally, you should use macros to replace small, repeatable code sections, and you should use functions for larger coding tasks that might require several lines of code.

Question 47. How Are Portions Of A Program Disabled In Demo Versions?

Answer :

If you are distributing a demo version of your program, the preprocessor can be used to enable or disable portions of your program. The following portion of code shows how this task is accomplished, using the preprocessor directives #if and #endif:

int save document(char* doc_name)



printf(“Sorry! You can’t save documents using the DEMO

version of this program!n”);




Question 48. What Is The Benefit Of Using An Enum Rather Than A #define Constant?

Answer :

The use of an enumeration constant (enum) has many advantages over using the traditional symbolic constant style of #define. These advantages include a lower maintenance requirement, improved program readability, and better debugging capability.

The first advantage is that enumerated constants are generated automatically by the compiler. Conversely, symbolic constants must be manually assigned values by the programmer. For instance, if you had an enumerated constant type for error codes that could occur in your program, your enum definition could look something like this:

enum Error_Code







In the preceding example, OUT_OF_MEMORY is automatically assigned the value of 0 (zero) by the compiler because it appears first in the definition. The compiler then continues to automatically assign numbers to the enumerated constants, making INSUFFICIENT_DISK_SPACE equal to 1, LOGIC_ERROR equal to 2, and FILE_NOT_FOUND equal to 3, so on. If you were to approach the same example by using symbolic constants, your code would look something like this:

#define OUT_OF_MEMORY 0


#define LOGIC_ERROR 2

#define FILE_NOT_FOUND 3

values by the programmer. Each of the two methods arrives at the same result: four constants assigned numeric values to represent error codes. Consider the maintenance required, however, if you were to add two constants to represent the error codes DRIVE_NOT_READY and CORRUPT_FILE. Using the enumeration constant method, you simply would put these two constants anywhere in the enum definition. The compiler would generate two unique values for these constants. Using the symbolic constant method, you would have to manually assign two new numbers to these constants. Additionally, you would want to ensure that the numbers you assign to these constants are unique.

Another advantage of using the enumeration constant method is that your programs are more readable and thus can be understood better by others who might have to update your program later.

A third advantage to using enumeration constants is that some symbolic debuggers can print the value of an enumeration constant. Conversely, most symbolic debuggers cannot print the value of a symbolic constant. This can be an enormous help in debugging your program, because if your program is stopped at a line that uses an enum, you can simply inspect that constant and instantly know its value. On the other hand, because most debuggers cannot print #define values, you would most likely have to search for that value by manually looking it up in a header file.

Question 49. Can A File Other Than A .h File Be Included With #include?

Answer :

The preprocessor will include whatever file you specify in your #include statement. Therefore, if you have the line

#include <macros.inc>

in your program, the file macros.inc will be included in your precompiled program. It is, however, unusual programming practice to put any file that does not have a .h or .hpp extension in an

#include statement.

You should always put a .h extension on any of your C files you are going to include. This method makes it easier for you and others to identify which files are being used for preprocessing purposes. For instance, someone modifying or debugging your program might not know to look at the macros.inc file for macro definitions. That person might try in vain by searching all files with .h extensions and come up empty. If your file had been named macros.h, the search would have included the macros.h file, and the searcher would have been able to see what macros you defined in it.

Question 50. Give The Benefit Of Using #define To Declare A Constant?

Answer :

Using the #define method of declaring a constant enables you to declare a constant in one place and use it throughout your program. This helps make your programs more maintainable, because you need to maintain only the #define statement and not several instances of individual constants throughout your program. For instance, if your program used the value of pi (approximately 3.14159) several times, you might want to declare a constant for pi as follows:

#define PI 3.14159

Using the #define method of declaring a constant is probably the most familiar way of declaring constants to traditional C programmers. Besides being the most common method of declaring constants, it also takes up the least memory. Constants defined in this manner are simply placed directly into your source code, with no variable space allocated in memory. Unfortunately, this is one reason why most debuggers cannot inspect constants created using the #define method.

Question 51. How To Avoid Including A Header More Than Once?

Answer :

One easy technique to avoid multiple inclusions of the same header is to use the #ifndef and #define preprocessor directives. When you create a header for your program, you can #define a symbolic name that is unique to that header. You can use the conditional preprocessor directive named #ifndef to check whether that symbolic name has already been assigned. If it is assigned, you should not include the header, because it has already been preprocessed. If it is not defined, you should define it to avoid any further inclusions of the header. The following header illustrates this technique:

#ifndef _FILENAME_H

#define _FILENAME_H

#define VER_NUM “1.00.00”

#define REL_DATE “08/01/94”

#if _ _WINDOWS_ _

#define OS_VER “WINDOWS”


#define OS_VER “DOS”



When the preprocessor encounters this header, it first checks to see whether _FILENAME_H has been defined. If it hasn’t been defined, the header has not been included yet, and the _FILENAME_H symbolic name is defined. Then, the rest of the header is parsed until the last #endif is encountered, signaling the end of the conditional #ifndef _FILENAME_H statement. Substitute the actual name of the header file for “FILENAME” in the preceding example to make it applicable for your programs.

Question 52. Differentiate Between Arrays And Pointers?

Answer :

Pointers are used to manipulate data using the address. Pointers use * operator to access the data pointed to by them Arrays use subscripted variables to access and manipulate data. Array variables can be equivalently written using pointer expression.

Question 53. Mention The Purpose Of Realloc ( )?

Answer :

The function realloc (ptr,n) uses two arguments. The first argument ptr is a pointer to a block of memory for which the size is to be altered. The second argument n specifies the new size. The size may be increased or decreased. If n is greater than the old size and if sufficient space is not available subsequent to the old region, the function realloc ( ) may create a new region and all the old data are moved to the new region.

Question 54. Describe Static Memory Allocation And Dynamic Memory Allocation?

Answer :

Static memory allocation: The compiler allocates the required memory space for a declared variable. By using the address of operator, the reserved address is obtained and this address may be assigned to a pointer variable. Since most of the declared variable has static memory, this way of assigning pointer value to a pointer variable is known as static memory allocation. Memory is assigned during compilation time. Dynamic memory allocation: It uses functions such as malloc ( ) or calloc ( ) to get memory dynamically. If these functions are used to get memory dynamically and the values returned by these functions are assigned to pointer variables, such assignments are known as dynamic memory allocation. Memory is assigned during run time.

Question 55. How Are Pointer Variables Initialized?

Answer :

Pointer variable are initialized by one of the following two ways

Static memory allocation

Dynamic memory allocation

Question 56. What Is A Pointer Variable?

Answer :A pointer variable is a variable that may contain the address of another variable or any valid address in the memory.

Question 57. Differentiate Between Text And Binary Modes?

Answer :

Streams can be classified into two types: text streams and binary streams. Text streams are interpreted, with a maximum length of 255 characters. With text streams, carriage return/line feed combinations are translated to the newline n character and vice versa. Binary streams are uninterpreted and are treated one byte at a time with no translation of characters. Typically, a text stream would be used for reading and writing standard text files, printing output to the screen or printer, or receiving input from the keyboard.

A binary text stream would typically be used for reading and writing binary files such as graphics or word processing documents, reading mouse input, or reading and writing to the modem.

Question 58. How To Restore A Redirected Standard Stream?

Answer :

The preceding example showed how you can redirect a standard stream from within your program. But what if later in your program you wanted to restore the standard stream to its original state? By using the standard C library functions named dup() and fdopen(), you can restore a standard stream such as stdout to its original state.

The dup() function duplicates a file handle. You can use the dup() function to save the file handle corresponding to the stdout standard stream. The fdopen() function opens a stream that has been duplicated with the dup() function.

Question 59. How To Search For Data In A Linked List?

Answer :

Unfortunately, the only way to search a linked list is with a linear search, because the only way a linked list’s members can be accessed is sequentially. Sometimes it is quicker to take the data from a linked list and store it in a different data structure so that searches can be more efficient.

Question 60. How To Sort A Linked List?

Answer :Both the merge sort and the radix sort are good sorting algorithms to use for linked lists.

Question 61. What Do You Mean By Hashing?

Answer :

To hash means to grind up, and that’s essentially what hashing is all about. The heart of a hashing algorithm is a hash function that takes your nice, neat data and grinds it into some random-looking integer.

The idea behind hashing is that some data either has no inherent ordering (such as images) or is expensive to compare (such as images). If the data has no inherent ordering, you can’t perform comparison searches.

If the data is expensive to compare, the number of comparisons used even by a binary search might be too many. So instead of looking at the data themselves, you’ll condense (hash) the data to an integer (its hash value) and keep all the data with the same hash value in the same place. This task is carried out by using the hash value as an index into an array. To search for an item, you simply hash it and look at all the data whose hash values match that of the data you’re looking for. This technique greatly lessens the number of items you have to look at. If the parameters are set up with care and enough storage is available for the hash table, the number of comparisons needed to find an item can be made arbitrarily close to one.

One aspect that affects the efficiency of a hashing implementation is the hash function itself. It should ideally distribute data randomly throughout the entire hash table, to reduce the likelihood of collisions. Collisions occur when two different keys have the same hash value. There are two ways to resolve this problem. In “open addressing,” the collision is resolved by the choosing of another position in the hash table for the element inserted later. When the hash table is searched, if the entry is not found at its hashed position in the table, the search continues checking until either the element is found or an empty position in the table is found.

The second method of resolving a hash collision is called “chaining.” In this method, a “bucket” or linked list holds all the elements whose keys hash to the same value. When the hash table is searched, the list must be searched linearly.

Question 62. Which Is The Quickest Searching Method To Use?

Answer :

A binary search, such as bsearch() performs, is much faster than a linear search. A hashing algorithm can provide even faster searching. One particularly interesting and fast method for searching is to keep the data in a “digital trie.” A digital trie offers the prospect of being able to search for an item in essentially a constant amount of time, independent of how many items are in the data set.

A digital trie combines aspects of binary searching, radix searching, and hashing. The term “digital trie” refers to the data structure used to hold the items to be searched. It is a multilevel data structure that branches N ways at each level.

Question 63. What Is The Easiest Sorting Method To Use?

Answer :

The answer is the standard library function qsort(). It’s the easiest sort by far for several reasons:

It is already written.

It is already debugged.

It has been optimized as much as possible (usually).

Void qsort(void *buf, size_t num, size_t size, int (*comp)

(const void *ele1, const void *ele2));

Question 64. Which Is The Quickest Sorting Method To Use?

Answer :

The answer depends on what you mean by quickest. For most sorting problems, it just doesn’t matter how quick the sort is because it is done infrequently or other operations take significantly more time anyway. Even in cases in which sorting speed is of the essence, there is no one answer. It depends on not only the size and nature of the data, but also the likely order. No algorithm is best in all cases.

There are three sorting methods in this author’s “toolbox” that are all very fast and that are useful in different situations. Those methods are quick sort, merge sort, and radix sort.

The Quick Sort :The quick sort algorithm is of the “divide and conquer” type. That means it works by reducing a sorting problem into several easier sorting problems and solving each of them. A “dividing” value is chosen from the input data, and the data is partitioned into three sets: elements that belong before the dividing value, the value itself, and elements that come after the dividing value. The partitioning is performed by exchanging elements that are in the first set but belong in the third with elements that are in the third set but belong in the first Elements that are equal to the dividing element can be put in any of the three sets—the algorithm will still work properly.

The Merge Sort:  The merge sort is a “divide and conquer” sort as well. It works by considering the data to be sorted as a sequence of already-sorted lists (in the worst case, each list is one element long). Adjacent sorted lists are merged into larger sorted lists until there is a single sorted list containing all the elements. The merge sort is good at sorting lists and other data structures that are not in arrays, and it can be used to sort things that don’t fit into memory. It also can be implemented as a stable sort.

The Radix Sort : The radix sort takes a list of integers and puts each element on a smaller list, depending on the value of its least significant byte. Then the small lists are concatenated, and the process is repeated for each more significant byte until the list is sorted. The radix sort is simpler to implement on fixed-length data such as ints.

Question 65. What Is The Benefit Of Using Const For Declaring Constants?

Answer :

The benefit of using the const keyword is that the compiler might be able to make optimizations based on the knowledge that the value of the variable will not change. In addition, the compiler will try to ensure that the values won’t be changed inadvertently.

Of course, the same benefits apply to #defined constants. The reason to use const rather than #define to define a constant is that a const variable can be of any type (such as a struct, which can’t be represented by a #defined constant). Also, because a const variable is a real variable, it has an address that can be used, if needed, and it resides in only one place in memory.

Question 66. Is It Acceptable To Declare/define A Variable In A C Header?

Answer :

A global variable that must be accessed from more than one file can and should be declared in a header file. In addition, such a variable must be defined in one source file.

Variables should not be defined in header files, because the header file can be included in multiple source files, which would cause multiple definitions of the variable. The ANSI C standard will allow multiple external definitions, provided that there is only one initialization. But because there’s really no advantage to using this feature, it’s probably best to avoid it and maintain a higher level of portability.

“Global” variables that do not have to be accessed from more than one file should be declared static and should not appear in a header file.

Question 67. When Should A Type Cast Be Used?

Answer :

There are two situations in which to use a type cast. The first use is to change the type of an operand to an arithmetic operation so that the operation will be performed properly.

The second case is to cast pointer types to and from void * in order to interface with functions that expect or return void pointers. For example, the following line type casts the return value of the call to malloc() to be a pointer to a foo structure.

struct foo *p = (struct foo *) malloc(sizeof(struct foo));

Question 68. How To Determine The Maximum Value That A Numeric Variable Can Hold?

Answer :

For integral types, on a machine that uses two’s complement arithmetic (which is just about any machine you’re likely to use), a signed type can hold numbers from –2(number of bits – 1) to +2(number of bits – 1) – 1. An unsigned type can hold values from 0 to +2(number of bits) – 1. For instance, a 16-bit signed integer can hold numbers from –2^15 (–32768) to +2^15 – 1 (32767).

Question 69. Can A Variable Be Both Const And Volatile?

Answer :

Yes. The const modifier means that this code cannot change the value of the variable, but that does not mean that the value cannot be changed by means outside this code. For instance, in the example in FAQ 8, the timer structure was accessed through a volatile const pointer. The function itself did not change the value of the timer, so it was declared const. However, the value was changed by hardware on the computer, so it was declared volatile. If a variable is both const and volatile, the two modifiers can appear in either order.

Question 70. When Does The Register Modifier Be Used? Does It Really Help?

Answer :

The register modifier hints to the compiler that the variable will be heavily used and should be kept in the CPU’s registers, if possible, so that it can be accessed faster. There are several restrictions on the use of the register modifier.

First, the variable must be of a type that can be held in the CPU’s register. This usually means a single value of a size less than or equal to the size of an integer. Some machines have registers that can hold floating-point numbers as well. Second, because the variable might not be stored in memory, its address cannot be taken with the unary & operator. An attempt to do so is flagged as an error by the compiler. Some additional rules affect how useful the register modifier is. Because the number of registers is limited, and because some registers can hold only certain types of data (such as pointers or floating-point numbers), the number and types of register modifiers that will actually have any effect are dependent on what machine the program will run on. Any additional register modifiers are silently ignored by the compiler.

Also, in some cases, it might actually be slower to keep a variable in a register because that register then becomes unavailable for other purposes or because the variable isn’t used enough to justify the overhead of loading and storing it.

So when should the register modifier be used? The answer is never, with most modern compilers. Early C compilers did not keep any variables in registers unless directed to do so, and the register modifier was a valuable addition to the language. C compiler design has advanced to the point, however, where the compiler will usually make better decisions than the programmer about which variables should be stored in registers. In fact, many compilers actually ignore the register modifier, which is perfectly legal, because it is only a hint and not a directive.

Q1- What is C Programming Language?

C programming language is a computer programming language that was developed to do system programming for the operating system UNIX and is an imperative programming language.

C was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at bell Telephone Laboratories.

It is an outgrowth of an earlier language called B, which was also developed at Bell Laboratories.

C was largely confined to use within Bell Laboratories until 1978, when Brian Kernighan and Ritchie Published a definitive description of the language. 

Q2- Basic structure of C program

Structure of C program is defined by set of rules called protocol, to be followed by programmer while writing C program, every c programs are having these sections which are mentioned below:

Documentation section - This is the first part of C program.

Link - Header files that are required to execute a C program.

Definition - In definition section, variables are defined and values are set to these variables

Global Declaration - When a variable is to be used throughout the program.

Function prototype declaration

Main function - Function prototype gives many information about a function like return type, parameter names used inside the function.

User defined function - User can define their own functions which perform particular task as per the user requirement.

Q3- What is a pointer in C? How to represent pointer?

A pointer (*p) is a variable that refers to the address of a value. It makes the code optimized & the performance fast. Whenever a variable (i) is declared inside a program, then the system allocates some memory to a variable. The memory contains some address number. The variables that hold this address number is known as the pointer variable.

Example Explained -

Example: data_type *p;

int main()


        int *p;

        int i=5;


        printf("Address value of 'i' variable is %u", p);

        return 0;


The above syntax tells that p is a pointer variable that holds the address number of a given data type value.

Q4- What is the usage of the pointer in C?

The use of pointer in C program, There are a small group of steps that you need to follow:

Accessing array elements - Pointers are used to make one's way across through an array of integers and strings. The string is an array of characters which is terminated by a null character '\0'.

Dynamic memory allocation - Pointers are used in allocation and deallocation of memory during the execution of a program.

Call by Reference - Pointers are used to pass a reference of a variable to other function.

Data Structures like a tree, graph, linked list - The pointers are used to construct different data structures like tree, graph, linked list etc.

Q5- When should we use pointers in a C program?

There are some points mentioned; When should we use pointers in a C program:

The first use of pointer to get address of a variable

Pointers allow different functions to share and modify their local variables.

To pass large structures so that complete copy of the structure can be avoided.

To implement “linked” data structures like linked lists and binary trees.

Q6- What is NULL pointer?

NULL Pointer is used to represent that the pointer doesn’t point to a valid location. Basically, we should initialize pointers as NULL if we don’t know their value at the time of declaration. Also, we should make a pointer NULL when memory pointed by it is deallocated in the middle of a program.

Q7- What is a pointer on pointer?

It’s a pointer (*p) variable which can hold the address of another pointer (**q) variable. It de-refers twice to point to the data held by the designated pointer variable.

Example Explained -

Example: int i=5, *p=&i, **q=&p;

int main()


        int i=5;

        int *p, **q;

        p = &i;

        q = &p;                                                                

        printf("value of 'i' is : %d", i);


        printf("value of '*p' is : %d", *p);


        printf("value of '**q' is : %d", **q);

        return 0;


Therefore " i " can be accessed by **q.

Q8- What is embedded C Programming?

Historically, embedded C programming requires nonstandard extensions to the C language in order to support exotic features such as fixed-point arithmetic, multiple distinct memory banks, and basic I/O operations.

In 2008, the C Standards Committee published a technical report extending the C language to address these issues by providing a common standard for all implementations to adhere to. It includes a number of features not available in normal C, such as fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.

Q9- What is Integrated Development Environment?

Integrated Development Environment is also called IDEs, it use to compile the program.There are several such IDEs available in the market targeted towards different operating system. For example, Turbo C and Turbo C++ are popular compailers that work under MS-DOS; Visual Studio 2008 and Visual Studio 2008 Express edition are the compilers that work under windows, where is gcc compiler work under Linux. Visual Asudio 2008 Express edition and gcc compilers are available free of cost.  

Q10- ANIS C and ISO C

In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) formed a committee, X3J11, to establish a standard specification of C. X3J11 based the C standard on the Unix implementation; however, the non-portable portion of the Unix C library was handed off to the IEEE working group 1003 to become the basis for the 1988 POSIX standard. In 1989, the C standard was ratified as ANSI X3.159-1989 "Programming Language C". This version of the language is often referred to as ANSI C, Standard C, or sometimes C89.

In 1990, the ANSI C standard (with formatting changes) was adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ISO/IEC 9899:1990, which is sometimes called C90. Therefore, the terms "C89" and "C90" refer to the same programming language.  

Q11- How to compile program using Turbo C/Turbo C++ in C?

There are several steps that you need to follow to compile and execute programs using Turbo C / Turbo C++ in C programming.  

Start the compiler at C> prompt. The compiler Turbo C is usually present in C:\TC\BIN directory.

Select New from the File menu

Type the Program

Save the program using F2 under a proper name for example (Program1.c)

Use Ctrl+F9 to compile and execute the program

Use Alt+F5 to view the output.

If you run this program in Turbo C++ compiler, you may get an error - The function printf should have a prototype

Select Options menu and then select Compiler C++ options. In the dialog box that pops up, select CPP always use C++ compiler options.

Again select Options menu and then select Environment Editor. Make sure that the default extension is C rather than CPP.

Q12- What is the variables and constants in C?

A variable is a tool to reserve space in computer's memory; and the reserved space is given a name, which we call a variable name. Constants are stored in this reserved space. The constants stored in the space reserved by the variable may vary from time to time, hence the name variable. The name once given to a location, however, remains unchanged. For example i=4; 4 is a constant which is being stored in a location which has been give a name i. So, i is a variable just as a, x, nate or str are.  

Accorrdingly memory comes in three convenient versions - char, int, float:

A char can store values in the range -128 to +127

Integer (int) can store values in the rang -2147483648 to +2147483647

When we want to store numbers like 3.1415, or 0.0005672 in memory.

A float can store values ranging from -3.4e+38 to +3.4e+38.

The Memory occupied by each datatype can be found out using an operator called sizeof. For example, sizeof (int) would yield 4. Similarly, sizeof (float) would yield 4.

Q13- What is Integer and Float Conversions in C?

It is important to understand the rules that govern the conversion of floating point and integer values in C. These are mentioned-  

An arithmetic operation between an integer and integer always yields an integer result.

An arithmetic operation between a float and float always yields a float result

In an arithmetic operation between an integer and float, the integer is first promoted to float and then the operation is carried out. And hence it always yield a float result.

On assigning a float to an integer using the operator, float is demoted to an integer.

On assigning an integer to a float, it is promoted to a float.

Integer conversions

Float conversions

































Q14- How to use printf() and scanf() function?

printf() is one of the most versatile statements in C programming. In fact, it is a standerd library fuction used to display the output on the screen.  

The general from of prinft() look like:

printf("format string", list of variable);

Example - printf("name=%c age=%d salary=%f\n", name, age, sal);

The first prinft() print the value of the variable name, age and sal. As againest this, second would print messages against each value displayed. In the third prinft(), the \n is used to send the cursor to the next line.

scanf() is once again a standard library function. It is used to receive value of variables from the keyboard. For example, the following scanf() would let you supply the values of variables a and b.

scanf("%d %f", &a, &b)

Within the pair of double quotes there should accur only format specifications like %c, %d, %f etc.

The variable names must always be preceded by the 'address of operator &'

Q15- The operators in c language

C language supports a rich set of built-in operators. An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform a certain mathematical or logical manipulation. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data and variables.  

Classified Operators

Operators Types

Arithmetic and Modulus operators

*, /, %

Relational Operators

<, >, <=, >=, ==, !=

Logical (AND and OR) operators

&& ||

Assignment operators

=, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=

Conditional operators

expression 1? expression 2: expression 3

Bitwise operotors

&, |, ^, <<, >>

Special operotors

sizeof, &, *

Q16- What is the relational operators? How to represent in C?

Relational Operators allow us to compare two values to see whether they are equal to ech other, unequal, or whether one is greater than the other.  

Relational Expression

Discriptions (is true if)


x is equal to y


x is not equal to y


x is less than y


x is greater than y


x is less than or equal to y


x is greater than or equal to y

Q17- What is the Purpose Of main() Function?

The main() Function is the beginning function in c programming. The main function is always return an int value to the environment that called the program. And the program execution ends when the closing brace of the function main() is reached. Any user defined name can also be used as parameters for main() instead of argc and argv.  

Q18- What are static functions?

The static function to specify the “static” keyword before a function name makes it static. Unlike global functions in C, access to static functions is restricted to the file where they are declared. Therefore, when we want to restrict access to functions, we make them static.  

Q19- What are local static variables? What is their use?

A local static variables lifetime doesn’t end with a function call where it is declared. It extends for the lifetime of complete program. All calls to the function share the same copy of local static variables.

Static variables can be used to count the number of times a function is called. Static variables get the default value as 0. Learn more about variables in C programming -  

Static Variable Example -

void f() {

static int i;


    printf("%d", i);


If a global variable is static then its visibility is limited to the same source code.

Q20- What is scope of a variable? How are variables scoped in C?

Scope of a variable is the part of the program where the variable may directly be accessible. In C, all identifiers are statically scoped.

Example -

int i;

int main (void)


   i = 2;


Can be accessed anywhere in a program.

Q21- What is static memory allocation?

In static memory allocation, memory is allocated at compile time, and memory can't be increased while executing the program. It is used in the array.

The lifetime of a variable in static memory is the lifetime of a program.

The static memory is allocated using static keyword.

The static memory is implemented using stacks or heap.

The pointer is required to access the variable present in the static memory.

The static memory is faster than dynamic memory.

In static memory, more memory space is required to store the variable.

Q22- What is dynamic memory allocation?

In dynamic memory allocation, memory is allocated at runtime and memory can be increased while executing the program. It is used in the linked list.

The malloc() or calloc() function is required to allocate the memory at the runtime.

An allocation or deallocation of memory is done at the execution time of a program.

No dynamic pointers are required to access the memory.

The dynamic memory is implemented using data segments.

Less memory space is required to store the variable.

Q23- What functions are used for dynamic memory allocation in C?

Basically, Fore functions are used for dynamic memory allocation in C language:


The malloc() function is used to allocate the memory during the execution of the program.

It does not initialize the memory but carries the garbage value.

It returns a null pointer if it could not be able to allocate the requested space.


The calloc() is same as malloc() function, but the difference only is that the fills allocated memory with 0’s value.


The realloc() function is used to reallocate the memory to the new size.

If sufficient space is not available in the memory, then the new block is allocated to accommodate the existing data.


The free() function releases the memory allocated by either calloc() or malloc() function.

Q24- Explain modular programming

When we are dividing the program in to sub programs (modules/function) to achieve the given task is modular approach. More generic functions definition gives the ability to re-use the functions, such as built-in library functions.

Q25- What is the structure?

The structure is a user-defined data type that allows storing multiple types of data in a single unit. It occupies the sum of the memory of all members.

The structure members can be accessed only through structure variables.

Structure variables accessing the same structure but the memory allocated for each variable will be different.

Example Explained -

struct student 


    char name[10];

    int age; 


int main() 


    printf("Enter the name"); 



    printf("Enter the age"); 



    printf("Name and age of a student: %s,%d",s1.name,s1.age); 

    return 0; 


Q26- What is loop in C Language?

A loop statement allows us to execute a statement or group of statements multiple times and following is the general form of a loop statement in most of the programming languages. For example - Suppose we want to print "number" 10 times. 

Q27- How many types of loops used in C?

C programming language provides the following types of loops to handle looping requirements.  


Loop description

while loop

Repeats a statement or group of statements while a given condition is true. It tests the condition before executing the loop body.

for loop

Execute a sequence of statements multiple times and abbreviates the code that manages the loop variable.

do..while loop

Like a while statement, except that it tests the condition at the end of the loop body

nested loops

You can use one or more loop inside any another while, for or do..while loop.

Q28- What is an infinite loop?

A loop running continuously for an indefinite number of times is called the infinite loop.

Example -


int main ()


   for(; ;)


        printf("This loop will run forever\n");


     return 0;


Infinite For Loop.

When the conditional expression is absent, it is assumed to be true. You may have an initialization and increment expression, but C programmers more commonly use the for(;;) construct to signify an infinite loop.

Q29- What is a nested loop?

A loop running within another loop is referred as a nested loop. The first loop is called Outer loop and inside the loop is called Inner loop. Inner loop executes the number of times define an outer loop.

Q30- What is an Arrays in C programming? How to use array?

Arrays a kind of data structure that can store a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type.

Declaring Arrays -

type arrayName [arraySize];

The arraySize must be an integer constant greater than zero and type can be any valid C data type.

All arrays consist of contiguous memory locations. The lowest address corresponds to the first element and the highest address to the last element.

Q31- Why do we need arrays?

We can use normal variables (v1, v2, v3,..) when we have small number of objects, but if we want to store large number of instances, it becomes difficult to manage them with normal variables. The idea of array is to represent many instances in one variable.

Q32- Can the sizeof operator is used to tell the size of an array passed to a function?

No. There's no way to tell, at runtime, how many elements are in an array parameter just by looking at the array parameter itself. And one more thing remember, passing an array to a function is exactly the same as passing a pointer to the first element. It means that passing pointers and arrays to C functions is very efficient.

Q33- Explain about Array Initializing

The number of values between braces { } cannot be larger than the number of elements that we declare for the array between square brackets [ ]. If you omit the size of the array, an array just big enough to hold the initialization is created.

Initializing Arrays -

double salary [5] = {100.0, 1000.0, 300.50, 20.65, 400.0};

double salary [] = {100.0, 1000.0, 300.50, 20.65, 400.0};

All arrays have 0 as the index of their first element which is also called the base index and the last index of an array will be total size of the array minus 1.

Q34- Mention The Characteristics Of Arrays In C

An array holds elements that have the same data type.

Array elements are stored in subsequent memory locations.

Two-dimensional array elements are stored row by row in subsequent memory locations.

Array name represents the address of the starting element.

Array size should be mentioned in the declaration. Array size must be a constant expression and not a variable.

Q35- What are the key features in C programming language?

Portability – Platform independent language.

Modularity – Possibility to break down large programs into small modules.

Flexibility – The possibility to a programmer to control the language.

Speed – C comes with support for system programming and hence it is compiling and executes with high speed when comparing with other high-level languages.

Extensibility – Possibility to add new features by the programmer.

Q36- What is the difference between structs and unions?

struct is a complex data type that allows multiple variables to be stored in a group at a named block of memory. Each member variable of a struct can store different data, and they all can be used at once.

union, on the other hand, stores the contents of any member variable at the exact same memory location. This allows the storage of different types of data at the same memory location. The result is that assigning a value to one member will change the value of all the other members. Unlike struct, only one member of the union type is likely to be useful at any given time.

Q37- What is the difference between C and C++?

C and C++ programming languages are belonging to middle level languages, both are differed in below:

C Language

C++ Language

C is structure/procedure oriented programming language

C++ is object oriented programming language.

C language program design is top down approach

C++ is using bottom up approach.

Polymorphism, virtual function, inheritance, Operator overloading, namespace concepts are not available in C programming language.

C++ language supports all these concepts and features.

C language gives importance to functions rather than data.

C++ gives importance to data rather than functions.

Data and function mapping is difficult in C.

Data and function mapping is simple in C++ that can be done using objects.

C language does not support user define data types.

C++ supports user define data types.

Exception handling is not present in C programming language.

Exception handling is present in C++ language.

C language allows data to freely flow around the functions.

Data and functions are bound together in C++ which does not allow data to freely flow around the functions.

Q38- What is embedded C?

Embedded C is the extension of C programming language.

It is used to develop micro controller based applications.

Embedded C includes features not available in normal C like fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.

Cell phones, MP3 players are some example for embedded systems in which embedded C is used to program and control these devices.

Q39- What is the difference between assembler, compiler and interpreter?

Assembler - It is a program that converts assembly level language (low level) into machine level language.

Compiler - Compiler compiles entire C source code into machine code.

Interpreters - It converts source code into intermediate code and then this intermediate code is executed line by line.

Q40- Write a C program to print - Hello, This is my first program?

Example -


int main ()


   printf("Hello, This is my first program\n");

   return 0;


Output - Hello, This is my first program

// printf() displays the string inside quotation

Q41- Differentiate Between A Linker And Linkage?

A linker converts an object code into an executable code by linking together the necessary build in functions. The form and place of declaration where the variable is declared in a program determine the linkage of variable.

Q42- What is the major difference between FOR and WHILE loop?

The major difference between FOR and WHILE loop are as follows:
FOR and WHILE loops are entry controlled loops it means test condition is checked for truth while entering into the loop’s body.

The FOR loop is usually appropriate for loops in which the initialization and increment are single statements and logically related whereas WHILE loop keeps the loop control statements together in one place.

FOR loop is used in more compact case comparing WHILE loop.

Q43- What is the difference between ++x and x++?

++X - ++X is called prefixed increment and the increment will happen first on X variable.

X++ - X++ is called postfix increment and the increment happens after the value of X variable used for the operations.

Q44- Is C language case sensitive?

Yes. C language instructions/commands/functions and everything used in C program are case sensitive.

Q45- What Are The Advantages Of Auto Variables?

The same auto variable name can be used in different blocks.

There is no side effect by changing the values in the blocks.

The memory is economically used.

Auto variables have inherent protection because of local scope.

Q46- What Is Storage Class And What Are Storage Variable?

A storage class is an attribute that changes the behavior of a variable. It controls the lifetime, scope and linkage.

There are five types of storage classes:






Q47-What Is The Stack?

The stack is where all the function's local variables are created. The stack also contains some information used to call and return from functions.

“stack trace” is a list of which functions have been called, based on this information. When you start using a debugger, one of the first things you should learn is how to get a stack trace.

The stack is very inflexible about allocating memory; everything must be deallocated in exactly the reverse order it was allocated in.

Allocating memory off the stack is extremely efficient. One of the reasons C compilers generate such good code is their heavy use of a simple stack.

Q48- What is Macro? Why do we use macro?

Macro is a name which is given to a value or to a piece of code/block in a program. Instead of using the value, we can use macro which will replace the value in a program.

Macro Syntax -


Q49- What Are The Standard Predefined Macros?

The ANSI C standard defines six predefined macros for use in the C language:

_LINE_ Inserts the current source code line number in your code.

_FILE_ Inserts the current source code filename in your code.

_DATE_ Inserts the current date of compilation in your code.

_TIME_ Inserts the current time of compilation in your code.

_cplusplus Is defined if you are compiling a C++ program.

Q50- What are enumerations? What is enum in C?

Enumerations are list of integer constants with name. Enumerators are defined with the keyword enum.

It start with 0 (zero) by default and value is incremented by 1 for the sequential identifiers in the list.

Q51- What do you mean by a sequential access file?

- While writing programs that store and retrieve data in a file, it is possible to designate that file into different forms.

- A sequential access file is such that data are saved in sequential order: one data is placed into the file after another.

- If you want to access a particular data within the sequential access file, data has to be read - one data at a time, until you reach the data you want.

Q52- Explain zero based addressing.

- The array subscripts always start at zero.

- These subscript values are used to identify the elements in the array.

- Since subscripts start at 0, arrays are said to use zero-based addressing.

Q53- Are bit fields portable?

- No, Bit fields are not portable.

- Since Bit fields cannot span machine words and the number of bits in a machine word is different on different machines, a particular program using bit fields might not compile on some machines.

- One should avoid using bit fields except when the machines can directly address bits in memory and the compiler can generate code.

Q54- Explain high-order and low-order bytes.

- The numbers are written from left to right in the decreasing order of significance. Similarly, the bits in a byte of computer memory can be considered as digits of a number written in base

- The byte holding the least significant 8 bits is called the low-order byte.

- The byte holding the most significant 8 bits is the most significant byte, or high- order byte.

Q55- What are the different types of endless loops?

An endless loop can be of two types

i.) A loop that is intentionally designed to go round and round until the condition within the loop is met. Once the condition is met, a break function gets the program out of the loop.

ii.) A loop condition written by mistake, causing the loop to run erroneously forever. Endless loops are also referred to as infinite loops.

Q56- Why are all header files not declared in every C program?

- Declaring all header files in every program would lead to increase in the overall file size and load of the program. It is not a good programming.

- The choice of header files that you want to declare in the program depends on the commands/functions you want to use in the program. Each header file contains different commands and functions. So we use only the files relevant to our program.

Q57- Which one would you prefer - a macro or a function?

It actually depends on the purpose of the program!

- In case of macros, the corresponding code is inserted directly into your source code at the point where macro is called. There is no overhead involved in using a macro.This makes the Macros more efficient and faster than functions. However, macros are usually small and cannot handle large, complex coding constructs. So, if it is a complex situation that the program wants to handle, functions are more suitable.

- Macros are expanded inline - this means that every time a macro occurs, the code is replicated. So, the code size in case of usage of macros will be larger in comparison to functions.

So, the choice of using macros or functions actually depends on your requirement - speed vs program size.

If your program contains small, repeated code sections, you should use Macros. If the program requires, large number of unique code lines - you should prefer functions.

Q58- What is break statement?

A break statement causes the loop to terminate. The control then passes to the statement following the body of the loop.

Q59- Explain spaghetti programming.

- Spaghetti programming refers to codes that tend to get tangled and overlapped throughout the program.

- It makes a program complex and analyzing the code becomes difficult. It usually happens due to the lack of work experience on developer's part.

Q60- Differentiate between the = symbol and == symbol?

- The = symbol is usually used in mathematical operations. It is used to assign a value to a given variable while the == symbol is a relational operator that is used to compare two values.

Q61- What are actual arguments?

- When some functions are created and used to perform an action on some given values, some values need to be passed to them. The values that are passed into the called function are referred to as actual arguments.

Q62-What is a newline escape sequence?

- A newline escape sequence is represented by the \n character.

- It is used to insert a new line while displaying the output data.

- To add more spaces you can use more \n characters.

Q63-How many levels deep can include files be nested?

- As such, there is no limit to the number of levels of nested include files you can have but your compiler might run out of stack space while trying to include an inordinately high number of files. This number depends on your hardware configuration and compiler.

- Although it is legal to nest include files yet you must avoid it. An include level should be created only where it is required and makes sense, like creating an include file that has an #include statement for each header required by the module you are working with.

Q64-What are pre-processor directives?

- Pre-processor directives are placed at the beginning of a C program. They begin with # symbol.

- This is the place, where library files are specified depending on the functions to be used in the program.

- Pre-processor directives are also used for declaration of constants.

Q65-What are compound statements?

- Compound statements are made up of two or more program statements which are executed together. They can be executed with a loop.

- Curly brackets { } are placed before and after compound statements.

- Compound statements are usually used while handling conditions in which a series of statements are executed when a TRUE or FALSE is evaluated.

Q66-How does placing some code lines between the comment symbol help in debugging the code?

- Placing comment symbols /* */ around a code isolates some code that the coder believes might be causing the errors in the program, without deleting it.

- If the code is correct, you can just remove the comment symbols, without needing to retype it.

- If it is wrong, you can just remove it.

Is it possible to pass an entire structure to functions?

Yes, it is possible to pass an entire structure to a function in a call by method style. Some programmers prefer to declare the structure globally, then pass a variable of that structure type to a function. It helps in maintaining the consistency and uniformity in terms of argument type.

Q67-What are header files? What are their uses?

- Header files are also called as library files.

- They carry two important things: the definitions and prototypes of functions being used in a program.

- For example: stdio.h is a header file that contains definition and prototypes of commands like printf and scanf.

Q68-Is it possible to create your own header files?

- Yes, it is possible to create a customized header file.

- To do this, you just need to include the function prototypes that you want to use in your program in it, and use the #include directive followed by the name of your header file.

Q69-Why is a semicolon (;) put at the end of every program statement?

- It is done for parsing process and compilation of the code.

- A semicolon acts as a delimiter. This tells the compiler where each statement ends, and can proceed to divide the statement into smaller elements for checking the syntax.

Q70-How do you access the values within an array?

- Arrays contain a number of elements, depending on the size you assigned it during variable declaration.

- Each element is assigned a number from 0 to number of elements minus 1.

- To assign or retrieve the value of a particular element, refer to the element number. For example: if you have a declaration that says “intmarks[6];”, then you have 6 accessible elements, namely: marks[0], marks[1], marks[2], marks[3], marks[4] and marks[5].

Q71-What is the role of && operator in a program code?

- The && is also referred to as AND operator.

- When this operator is used, all conditions specified must be TRUE before the next action can be carried out.

- If any of the conditions is false, the whole statement is false.

Q72-Differentiate between functions getch() and getche().

- Both functions accept a character input value from the user.

- When getch() is used, the key that was pressed will not appear on the screen. It is automatically captured and assigned to a variable.

- While when getche() is used, the key that was pressed by the user appears on the screen and is assigned to a variable.

Q73-What are the various types of control structures in programming?

- Mainly there are 3 types of control structures in programming: Sequence, Selection and Repetition.

- Sequential control follows a top- down flow in executing a program. This means that step 1 is first executed, followed by step 2 and so on.

- Selection means dealing with conditional statements. This means that the code is executed depending on the evaluation of conditions a TRUE or FALSE. It means that not all codes may be executed and there are alternative flows within.

- Repetitions are also called as loop structures. They will repeat one or two program statements as set by a counter.

Q74-Differentiate between the expression “++a” and “a++”?

- With ++a, the increment happens first on variable a, and the resulting value is used. This is called as prefix increment.

- With a++, the current value of the variable will be used in an operation. This is called as postfix increment.

Q75-What are control structures?

- Control structures decide which instructions in the program should be executed.

- This implies that the program flow may not necessarily move from one statement to the next one. Some alternative portions may be executed depending on the conditional statements.

Q76-Explain enumerated types.

- Enumerated types allow the programmers to use more meaningful words as values to a variable.

- Each item in the enumerated type variable is actually associated with a numeric code. For an enumerated type variable named Months can be created. Its values can be January, February,....December.

Are comments included during the compilation stage and placed in the EXE file as well?

- No, comments encountered by the compiler are disregarded.

- Their only purpose is guidance and ease of programming. They have no effect on the functionality of the program.

Q77-Tell us something about keyword "auto".

- "Automatic" is a local variable with a local lifetime.

- It is declared by auto storage-class specifier.

- This variable is visible only in the block in which it is declared.

- The value of uninitialized auto variables is undefined.

- The variables with auto storage class need to be initialised while storing them or initial values need to be assigned to them in statements within the block.

Q78-Explain the meaning of keyword 'extern' in a function declaration.

- 'extern' modifier in a method declaration implies that the method is implemented externally.

- The program doesn't reserve any memory for a variable declared as 'extern'.

- A variable that is required to be used in every file of the project is declared globally in one file - and not inside any function.

- 'extern' declaration of that variable is added to a header file not included in all others.

Q79-Differentiate between #include<...> and #include "..."

- #include<...> means that the directories other than the current one will be searched for the header file.

- #include "..." means that the current directory will be searched for the header file before any other directories.

Situation - The 'sizeof' operator reported a larger size than the calculated size for a structure type. What could be the reason?

- The 'sizeof' operator shows the amount of storage needed to store an object of the specified type of operand.

- The result of applying it to a structure type name is the number of bytes including internal and trailing padding.

- This may include internal leading & trailing padding used for the alignment of structure on memory boundaries. This may cause the error.

Q80-What does *p++ do? What does it point to?

- *p++ increments p.

- It returns the value pointed to by p before incrementation.

Q82-Explain "Bus Error".

- It is a fatal error in the execution of a machine language instruction.

- It occurs because the processor detects an abnormal condition on its bus.

The causes may be:

- Invalid address alignment.

- Accessing a physical address that does not correspond to any device.

- Other device specific hardware error.

Q83-What are volatile variables?

Volatile variables are like other variables except that the values might be changed at any given point of time only by ‘some external resources’.


volatile int number;

The value may be altered by some external factor, though if it does not appear to the left of the assignment statement. The compiler will keep track of these volatile variables.

What do you think about the following?

int i;

scanf("%d", i);

printf("%d", i);

- The program will compile without any errors.

- When you try to enter a value using "stdin", the system will try to store the value at location with address "i". "i" might be invalid leading the program to crash and core dump.

- It implies that this code has a bug.

Q84-What will be the output of the following?

int main()


return 0;


- Runt time error. Stack overflow.

Q85-What are the advantages of using linked list for tree construction?

- Unless the memory is full, overflow will never occur.

- Insertions & deletions are easier in comparison to arrays.

- Moving pointer is faster & easier in comparison to moving items when records are large.

Q86-Which data structure is used to perform recursion?

- Stack data structure is used to perform recursion.

- Its LIFO property stores return addresses of the 'caller' and its successions in recursion to find where the execution control should return.

Q87-Explain the following.

a.) Queue b.) Priority Queues -


a.) Queue -

- Queue is a FIFO or LIFO data structure.

- It permits two operations - enqueue & dequeue.

- The methods used to check the status of the queue are - empty() and full()


b.) Priority Queues -

- List of items with priority associated with it.

- Priority queues effectively support finding the item with highest priority across a series of operations.

- Basic priority queue operations are - insert, find maximum or minimum, delete maximum or minimum.

Q88-Explain the following.

a. ) Binary height balanced tree b.) Ternary tree c.) Red-black trees


a. ) Binary height balanced tree-

- It is a binary tree in which for every node the heights of left and right subtree differ by not more than 1.


b.) Ternary tree -

- In this tree a node can have zero or more child nodes.


c.) Red-black trees -

It is a binary search tree with following properties:

- Root is black.

- Every leaf is black.

- Every node is either red or black.

- For a red node, both its children are black.

- All internal nodes have two children .

- Every simple path from a node to a descendant leaf contains the same number of black nodes.

Q89-What is "Bus error"?

A ‘bus error’ is certain undefined behavior result type. The cause for such error in a system could not be specified by the C language. The memory accessibility which CPU could not address physically, ‘bus error’ occurs. Also, any fault detected by a device by the computer system can also be a ‘bus error’. These errors caused by programs that generate undefined behavior which C language no longer specifies what can happen.

Q90-Throw some light on the following.

a.) Splay trees b.) B tree


a.) Splay trees -

- These are self adjusting binary search trees.

- They can adjust optimally to any sequence of tree operations.

- Everytime a node of the tree is accessed, a radical surgery is performed on it. This results into the newly accessed node turning into the root of the modified tree.

- Splaying steps used are: Zig rotation, Zag rotation, Zig-zag, Zag-zig, Zig-zig, Zag-zag.


b.) B tree -

- The root is either a tree leaf or has at least two children.

- Each node (except root & tree leaves) has between ceil(m/2) and m children. Ceil being the ceiling function.

- Each path from root to tree leaf has same length.

Q91-Explain - a.) Threaded binary trees b.) B+ tree

a.) Threaded binary trees -

- Every node without a right child has a link(thread) to its INORDER successor.

- This threading avoids the recursive method of traversing a tree which makes stacks & consumes a lot of memory & time.


b.) B+ tree -

- Consists of root, internal nodes and leaves.

- Root may be a leaf or internal node with two or more children.

- For a B+ tree of order v, internal nodes contain between v and 2v keys. A node with 'k' keys has 'k+1' children.

- Leaves exist on same level. They are the only nodes with data pointers.

Q92-Differentiate between full, complete & perfect binary trees.

Full binary tree - Each node is either a leaf or an internal node with exactly two non-empty children.

Complete binary tree - For a tree with height 'a', every level is completely filled, except possibly the deepest one. At depth 'a', all nodes must be as far left as possible.

Perfect binary tree - For a tree with height 'd', every internal node has two children and all the leaf nodes exist at same level.

Q93-Explain the use of keyword 'register' with respect to variables.

- It specifies that a variable is to be stored in a CPU register.

- 'register' keyword for variables and parameters reduces code size.

- The no. of CPU registers is dependent on its architectural design. Mostly this number is 32.

Q94-Define recursion in C.

A programming technique in which a function may call itself. Recursive programming is especially well-suited to parsing nested markup structures

Q95-What is the purpose of "register" keyword?

The keyword ‘register’ instructs the compiler to persist the variable that is being declared , in a CPU register.


Ex: register int number;


The persistence of register variables in CPU register is to optimize the access. Even the optimization is turned off; the register variables are forced to store in CPU register.

Q96-Explain #pragma statements.

- Implementations of C & C++ supports features unique to the OS or host machine.

- #pragma directives offer a way for each compiler to offer machine and OS specific features while retaining overall compatibility.

- Pragmas are used in conditional statements, to provide new pre-processor functionality or implementation-defused information to the compiler.

Q97-Explain the properties of union. What is the size of a union variable

- With Union same storage can be referenced in different ways.

- When sizeof is applied to a union it shows the size of biggest member.

- Each initialization of union over-writes the previous one - there's no standard way.

- Syntax, format and use of tags and decorators are like struct, but members overlay each other, rather than following each other in memory.

Q98-What is the format specifier for printing a pointer value?

- %p format specifier displays the corresponding argument that is a pointer.

- %x can be used to print a value in hexadecimal format.

Q99-Why can arithmetic operations not be performed on void pointers?

- We don't know the size of what's being pointed to with a void *. So, it is difficult to determine how far to seek the pointer to get the next valid address.

Q100-What are bitwise shift operators?

<< - Bitwise Left-Shift


Bitwise Left-Shift is useful when to want to MULTIPLY an integer (not floating point numbers) by a power of 2.

Expression: a << b


>> - Bitwise Right-Shift


Bitwise Right-Shift does the opposite, and takes away bits on the right.

Expression: a >> b

This expression returns the value of a divided by 2 to the power of b.

Q101-What is the translation phases used in C language?

There are various translation phases that can be used in C language. These are as follows:

a) The first stage of the translation phase is to check the tri-graph and allow it to be used with the system.

b) The second stage is to identify the type of program that has to be written for that, the identification of identifiers and others are figured out.

c) The third stage is the important stage where the translation from comments to the space takes place. The space is not being seen in the case of strings or character constant. And multiple white spaces may be combined in one.

d) The last stage involves the complete translation of the program.

Q102-What are the different types of objects used in C?

There are two types of objects that are used in C and they are as follows:

Internal object: deals with the internal functionality of the program. Any function that is being defined inside is an internal function. Internal objects are used inside the program itself and don’t include any external references.

External object: deals with the external functions used in the program. All the functions are used as external as they can't be defined inside one another. The C program is always a collection of external objects. The external objects are used for reducing the code and increasing the usability of it. These objects gets involved in the cross-file and library communication.

Q103-What is the use of linkage in C language?

Linkage is the term that is used to describe the accessibility of the objects from one file to another file. This file can be either from the same file or different files. The linkage is really helpful in managing a large number of links when lots of files are linked together with one another. User can declare the same function more than once within the same scope or different scope. The packaging of the library function can be declared to the function in the header as its function is defined in a source file. The source file is included in the header file as:

// first.c #include "first.h" int first(int n)







This way there is a surety that the function is defined in the source file and working with the same declarations as it is mentioned in the above files. As it can be seen in here the declaration is done twice. And the second declaration also consisted of the function as well as the definition. The linkage provides a way for the functions to be used in the same scope.

Q104-What are the different types of linkage exist in C?

There are three types of linkages that are used to make an object accessible from one file to another. The linkages that are being provided are as follows:


a) No linkage: defines the linkage that is having internal functionality and internal functions with its arguments and variables internal to the application itself.


b) External linkage: external linkage defines the linkage that is located externally of the program. It is considered as the default linkage for the functions and other parameters that are defined outside the scope of the program. All the instances are referred as the same object if they are preceded with the external linkage. For example printf() is declared externally in as int printf(const char *, …) this is the function that returns an integer.


c) Internal linkage: deals with the names that are internal to the files or the same objects within the same file. This allows the user to define the linkage internally without shifting to many other files for the references. The internal linkage can be done by prefixing the keyword static in front of the object name.


The following sample code will explain the linkages used:


// this is the second file that includes the first file externally

extern int i;

void f ()


// Write your own code here



Q105-Write a program to show the change in position of a cursor using C

The program that can be made to show the changes in position of a cursor using C includes the libraries that are on the graphics level like <dos.h>. This way the cursor representation can be shown graphically to the user. The program of doing that is as follows:

int main()


union REGS, n, i;

n.h.b=2; //It is used to position the cursor





printf(“This will show the positioning of the cursor”);

return 0;


Q106-What is the function of pragma directive in C?

Pragma is a directive with different implementation rules and use. There are many directives that vary from one compiler to another compiler. The pragma directive is used to control the actions of the compiler that is ignored during the preprocessing. It passes the instructions to the compiler to perform various actions without affecting the program as whole.


pragma-string passes the instructions to the compiler with some of the required parameters. The parameters are as follows:

Copyright- it specifies the copyright string.


Copyright_date- it specifies the copyright date for the copyright string. Some version control can be given as parameter.


The sample code is given below:

#pragma pragma-string.


#pragma pragma-string

int main(){

printf("C is powerful language ");

return 0;


Q107-What is the data segment that is followed by C?

The data segment is the segment that consists of the four parts:


a) Stack area: is the first segment part that consists of all the automatic variables and constants that are stored in the stack area. The automatic variables that are included in C are the local variables that are of default storage class, variable of auto class, integer, character, string constants, etc., function parameters and return values.


b) Data area: consists of all the extern and static variables that are stored in this area. It stores the data permanently the memory variables that are initialized and not initialized.


c) Heap area: consists of the memory that can be allocated dynamically to the processes. The memory can be dynamically allocated by the use of the function malloc() and calloc().


d) Code area: consists of a function pointer that is used to access only the code area. The size of the area remains fixed and it remains in the read only memory area.

Q108-What is the function of multilevel pointer in c?

Multilevel pointer is a pointer that points to another pointer in a series. There can be many levels to represent the pointers. The multilevel pointers are given as:


int main(){

int s=2,*r=&s,**q=&r,***p=&q;


return 0;


In the above code the ***p will be pointing to the pointer of pointer that is **q and **q in case will be pointing to another pointer that is s. This chain will continue if new addition will take place.

Q109-What is use of integral promotions in C?

Integral promotions deals with the promotions that are internally being performed to convert the lower precision level to higher level like shorter to int. The conversations that is being defined includes: A short or char will be converted to the int automatically. If the assignment is not being done then the conversation will be assigned to the unsigned int. Through this the original value and sign can be preserved for further actions. The conversation of char can be treated as signed or unsigned but it will always been implementation dependent. These are helpful in applying a conversation on which sift, unary +, -, and ~ operators can be taken place.

Q110-What is the use of ?: operator?

This ?: operator is used to show the conditional statement that allows the output of the statement to be either true or false. This operator is used as:



If the expression is true then the result will be expression1. If the expression is false then the result will be expression2. There is only one evaluation take place for the result. The expression that is used with arithmetic operators are easy to solve and it is easy to convert and apply to the expressions.

What is the condition that is applied with ?: operator?

The condition that has to be applied with the ?: operator is as follows:


The type of the result will be generated if there are two operands of compatible types. The pointers can be mixed together to give some result. The pointers that are involved for the result has two steps to follow:


a) If an operand is a pointer then the result will be of a pointer type.


b) If any of the operand is a null pointer constant then result will be considered of the operand. The example is shown below:

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>


int i;

for(i=0; i <= 10; i++){

printf((i&1) ? "odd\n" : "even\n");



Q111-What is the function of volatile in C language?

Volatile is a keyword that is used with the variables and objects. It consists of the special properties that are related to the optimization and threading. It doesn't allow the compiler to apply the customization on the source code for the values that can't be changed automatically. It allows the access to the memory devices that are mapped to the particular function or the keyword. It also allows the use of variables that is between the function setjmp and longjmp. It handles the signals that are passed for the variables. The operations on the variables are not atomic and they are made before any relationship of the threading occurs.

Q112-What is the use of void pointer and null pointer in C language?

Void pointer: is a type of pointer that points to a value that is having no type. It points to any of the datatype. It is used to take the type automatically on run time and it is used to change from integer or float to string of characters. It allows passing null pointer.


Null pointer: null pointer is just used as a regular pointer that consists of any pointer type with some special value. It doesn't point to any valid reference or memory address. It is just used for easy to make a pointer free. The result is the result of the type-casting where the integer value can have any pointer type.

What is the process of writing the null pointer?

The null pointer can be written either by having an integral constant with a value of 0 or this value can be converted to void* type. This can be done by using the cast function. For assigning any pointer type to any other pointer type then it first gets converted to other pointer type and then will appear in the program. The code that is being written for null pointer is:

int *ip;

ip = (int *)6;

*ip = 0xFF;

Q113-What are the different properties of variable number of arguments?

The properties of variable number of arguments are as follows:

The first parameter of the argument should be of any data type. The invalid declaration of a function will be done like




The valid declaration of the function will be like:


int(char c);



There should not be any passing from one data type to another data type. There is also invalid declaration on the basis of:


int(int a,int b);


There should not be any blank spaces in between the two periods. The placing of any other data type can be done in place of ellipsis.

How does normalization of huge pointer works?

Huge pointer is the pointer that can point to the whole memory of the RAM and that can access all the segments that are present in a program. The normalization can be done depending on the microprocessor of the system. The physical memory of the system is represented in 20 bit and then there is a conversion of 4 byte or 32 bit address. The increment of the huge pointer will also affect the offset and segment address. Through the huge pointer the access and modification of device driver memory, video memory, etc. Huge pointer manages the overall system of the memory model and also normalizes the overall use of the pointers.

Q114-What are the different types of pointers used in C language?

There are three types of pointers used in C language. These pointers are based on the old system architecture. The types are as follows:


a) Near pointer: this is the pointer that points only to the data segment. There is a restriction of using it beyond the data segment. The near pointer can be made by using the keyword as “near”.


b) Far pointer: it will access the total memory of the system and can be use to point to every object used in the memory.


c) Wild pointer: it is a pointer that is not being initialized.

Q115-What is the difference between null pointer and wild pointer?

Wild pointer is used to point to the object but it is not in initialization phase. Null pointer points to the base address of a particular segment. Wild pointer consists of the addresses that are out of scope whereas null pointer consists of the addresses that are accessible and in the scope. Wild pointer is declared and used in local scope of the segment whereas null is used in the full scope.

Q116-What is a dangling pointer?

A dangling pointer is one that has a value (not NULL) which refers to some memory which is not valid for the type of object you expect. For example if you set a pointer to an object then overwrote that memory with something else unrelated or freed the memory if it was dynamically allocated.

Q117-Differentiate between: a.) Declaring a variable b.) Defining a variable

a.) Declaring a variable - Declaration informs the compiler about size and type of variable at the time of compilation. No space is reserved in the memory as a result of declaring the variables.


b.) Defining a variable - means declaring it and reserving a place for it in the memory.

Defining a variable = Declaration + Space reservation.

Q118-Where are auto variables stored? What are the characteristics of an auto variable?

Auto variables are defined under automatic storage class. They are stored in main memory.


- Main memory

- CPU registers


Memory is allocated to an automatic variable when the block containing it is called. When the block execution is completed, it is de-allocated.


Characteristic of auto variables:


- Stored in: main memory

- Default value: garbage

- Scope: Local to the block where it is defined

- Life: Till the control stays in the block where it is defined

Q119-Why do we use namespace feature?

- Multiple library providers might use common global identifiers. This can cause name collision when an application tries to link with two or more such libraries.


- The namespace feature surrounds a library's external declaration with a unique namespace that eliminates the potential for those collisions.


namespace [identifier] { namespace-body }


- A namespace declaration identifies and assigns a name to a declarative region.

- The identifier in a namespace declaration must be unique in the declarative region in which it is used.

- The identifier is the name of the namespace and is used to reference its members.

Q120-How are structure passing and returning implemented?

- When structures are passed as arguments to functions - the whole structure is usually pushed on the stack, through as several words as are needed.

- In order to avoid this overhead, usually pointers to structures are used.

- Some compilers simply pass a pointer to the structure, even though they have to produce a local copy to save pass-by-value semantics.

- Structures are usually returned from functions in a position pointed to by an additional, compiler-supplied hidden argument to the function.

- Some old compilers used to use unique, static locations for structure returns.

Q121-What are “near” and “far” pointers?

“Near” and “Far” pointers are system specific and the use of it, has been decreased over the years, it has now become obsolete. These are supported by 16-bit programming languages. To know the machine that doesn’t require these kinds of pointers, use a preprocessor or remove the unnecessary “near”, “far” pointer keywords.

Q122-Why can’t we compare structures?

- A way for a compiler to apply structure evaluation that is constant with lower level flavor of C does not exist.

- A plain byte-by-byte comparison could be found on random bits available in unused ‘holes’ in the structure.

- This filling maintains the arrangement of following fields accurate.

- A field-by-field assessment may require improper amounts of recurring code for larger structures.

Q123-What do you mean by invalid pointer arithmetic?

Invalid pointer arithmetic include:


(i) Adding, dividing and multiplying two pointers

(ii) Adding double or float to pointer

(iii) Masking or shifting pointer

(iv) Assigning a pointer of one type to another type of pointer.

Q124-What is the purpose of ftell?

- ftell() function is used to get the current file referred by the file pointer.

- ftell(fp); returns a long integer value referring the current location of the file pointed by the file pointer fp.

- If there's an error, it will return -1.

Q125-Explain a pre-processor and its advantages.

Pre-processor practices the source code program before it is sent through the compiler.


(i) It increases the readability of a program and enables implementing comprehensive program.

(ii) It helps in easier modification

(iii) It facilitates writing convenient programs

(iv) It helps in easier debugging and testing a portion of the program

Q126-What do the ‘c’ and ‘v’ in argc and argv stand for?

- The c in argument count, argc stands for the number of the command line argument that the program is invoked with.


- And v in argument vector, argv is a pointer to an array of the character string that contains the argument.

How can we read/write Structures from/to data files?

- In order to compose a structure fwrite() can be used as Fwrite(&e, sizeof(e),1,fp). e refers to a structure variable.

- A consequent fread() invocation will help in reading the structure back from file.

- Calling function fwrite() will write out sizeof(e) byte from the address & e.

- Data files that are written as memory images with function fwrite() will not be portable, especially if they include floating point fields or pointers.

- This happens because structures’ memory layout is compiler and machine dependent.

Q127-Differentiate between ordinary variable and pointer in C.

Ordinary variable - It is like a container which can hold any value. Its value can be changed anytime during the program.


Pointer - Stores the address of the variable.

Explain "far" and "near" pointers in C.

"Far" and "Near" - non-standard qualifiers available in x86 systems only.


Near pointer - Refers to an address in known segment only.


Far pointer - Compound value containing a segment number and offset into that segment

Q128-When should you use a type cast?

Type cast should be used in two cases:


a.) To change the type of an operand to an arithmetic operation so that the operation can be performed properly.

b.) To cast pointer types to and from void *, to interface with functions that return void pointers.

Q129-What are storage classes in C?

a.) Automatic storage classes : Variable with block scope but without static specifier.

b.) Static storage classes: Variables with block scope and with static specifier. Global variables with or without static specifier.

c.) Allocated storage classes: Memory obtained from calls to malloc(), alloc() or realloc().

Q130-Explain null pointer.

Null pointer - A pointer that doesn't point to anything.


It is used in three ways:


- To stop indirection in a recursive data structure.

- As an error value

- As a sentinel value

Q131-How do you initialize pointer variables?

Pointer variables are initialized in two ways:

- By static memory allocation

- By dynamic memory allocation

Q132-What is an lvalue?

- lvalue - an expression to which a value can be assigned.

- It is located on the left side of an assignment statement

- lvalue expression must reference a storable variable in memory.

- It is not a constant.

Q133-What are the advantages of external class?

Advantages of external storage class:


- Retains the latest value with persistent storage.

- The value is available globally.

Disadvantages of external storage class:

- Storage for external variable exists even when it is not needed.

- Modification of the program becomes difficult.

- It affects the generality of the program.

Q134-When should you not use a type cast?

- You should not use type cast to override a constant or volatile declaration as it can cause the failure of effective running of program.

- It should not be used to turn a pointer to one type of structure or data type into another.

Q135-Explain modulus operator. What are the restrictions of a modulus operator?

- Modulus operator - provides the remainder value.

- It is applied to integral operands.

- It can not be applied to float or double.

Q136-Explain: a.) Function b.) Built-in function

a.) Function


- When a large program is divided into smaller subprograms - each subprogram specifying the actions to be performed - these subprograms are called functions.

- Function supports only static and extern storage classes.


b.) Built-in function


- Predefined functions supplied along with the compiler.

- They are also called library functions.

Q137-Explain: a.) goto b.) setjmp()

a.) goto - statement implements a local jump of program execution. This statement bypasses the code in your program and jumps to a predefined position. You need to provide the program a labelled position to jump to. This position has to be within the same function. It is not possible to implement goto between different functions.


b.) setjmp() - implement a non local, far jump of program execution. This function can be implemented between different functions. When setjmp() is used, the current state of the program is saved in a structure of type jmp_buf.


Using goto and setjmp() is not a good programming practice. They cause a wastage of memory leading to a largely reduction in the efficiency of the program.

Q138-What do you mean by Enumeration Constant?

- Enumeration is a data type. Using enumeration constant, it is possible to create your own data type and define the values it can take.


- This helps in increasing the readability of the program.


Enum is declared in two parts:


a.) Part one declares the data types and specifies the possible values called enumerators.

b.) Part two declares the variables of this data type.

Q139-Explain Union. What are its advantages?

- Union - collection of different types of data items.

- Though it has members of different data types, at a time it can hold data of only one member.

- Same memory is allocated to two members of different data types in a Union. The memory allocated is equal to the maximum size of members.

- The data is interpreted in bytes depending on the member accessed.

- Union is efficient when its members are not required to be accessed at the same time.

Q140-What is the purpose of main() function?

- Execution starts from main() in C

- It can contain any number of statements

- Statements are executed in the sequence in which they are written

- It can call other functions. The control is passed to that function.

E.g. int main();


int main(int argc, char *argv[]);

Q141-Explain argument and its types.

Argument : An expression which is passed to a function by its caller for the function to perform its task.


Arguments are of two types: actual and formal.


- Actual argument: These are the arguments passed in a function call. They are defined in the calling function.


- Formal argument: Formal arguments are the parameters in a function declaration. Their scope is local to the function definition. They belong to the function being called and are a copy of actual arguments. Change in formal argument doesn't get reflected in actual argument.

Q142-Which of these functions is safer to use : fgets(), gets()? Why?

- Out of the two fgets() is safer.

- gets() receives the string from the keyboard and stops when the "enter" key is hit

- There is no limit to the size of the string which can cause memory over flow.

Q143-What are pointers? Why are they used?

Pointers are variables which store the address of other variables.


Advantages of using pointers:


- They allow to pass values to functions using call by reference - especially useful while large sized arrays are passed as arguments to functions.

- They allow dynamic allocation of memory.

- They help in resizing the data structures.

Q144-How can I change the size of the dynamically allocated array?

You can change the size of the array if it is defined dynamically, by using the realloc() function. realloc() function’s syntax is written as:

dynarray = realloc(dynarray, 20 * sizeof(int));

But, realloc() function can’t just enlarge the memory, and this memory allocation depends on the space available in the system. If realloc() can’t find the space available, then it returns null pointer.


Q145-How to write a multi-statement macro?

Macro are simple statements which are written to, dynamically execute the method or function. The function call syntax is:

MACRO(arg1, arg2);

Macro can be included with the conditional statements using the external else clause. You can include simple expressions in macro with no declarations or loops like:

#define FUNC(arg1, arg2) (expr1, expr2, expr3)


Q146-What's the right way to use errno?

The errors should be checked by return values. Errno defines among various causes of an error, such as “File not found” or “Permission denied”. Errno detects only when a function doesn’t have a unique or unambiguous errors. Errno can be set manually to 0 to find the errors. Error messages can be made useful if the program name with the error can be printed so that the error can be noticed and solved.


Q147-Why can't I perform arithmetic on a void* pointer?

There are no arithmetic operations that can be performed on void* pointer is because the compiler doesn’t know the size of the pointed objects. Arithmetic operations can only be done on the pointed objects. Some compilers make it an exception to perform the arithmetic functions on the pointer.


Q148 -How can I return multiple values from a function?

A function can return multiple values in several ways by using the pointers. These include the examples like hypothetical calculation of polar-to-rectangular coordinate functions. The pointer allows you to have a function in which you can pass multiple values and use them.

Example code:


polar_to_rectangular(double a, double b, double *xp, double *yp)

{ a=10;


*xp = a;

*yp = b;



Q149-What's the total generic pointer type?

There is nothing like total generic pointer type, only void* holds the object (i.e. data) pointers. Converting function pointer to type void* is not a portable and it is not appropriate to convert it also. You can use any function type like int*() or void*(), these pointers can be treated as a generic function pointer. The best way to have the portability, is to use void* and a generic pointer combination.


Q150- What are volatile variables?

Volatile variables are like other variables except that the values might be changed at any given point of time only by ‘some external resources’.



volatile int number;

The value may be altered by some external factor, though if it does not appear to the left of the assignment statement. The compiler will keep track of these volatile variables.